How do I make function decorators and chain them together in Python?

Better Stack Team
Updated on January 26, 2023

In Python, a decorator is a design pattern to extend the functionality of a function without modifying its code. You can create a decorator function using the @decorator_function syntax, or by calling the decorator function and passing the decorated function as an argument. For example:

def my_decorator(func):
    def wrapper(*args, **kwargs):
        print("Before function call")
        result = func(*args, **kwargs)
        print("After function call")
        return result
    return wrapper

def my_function():
    print("Inside function")

# Output: "Before function call", "Inside function", "After function call"

You can chain decorators together by applying multiple decorators to a single function. The decorators will be applied in the order they are specified, with the innermost decorator being applied first. For example:

def decorator1(func):
    def wrapper(*args, **kwargs):
        print("Decorator 1")
        return func(*args, **kwargs)
    return wrapper

def decorator2(func):
    def wrapper(*args, **kwargs):
        print("Decorator 2")
        return func(*args, **kwargs)
    return wrapper

def my_function():
    print("Inside function")

# Output: "Decorator 2", "Decorator 1", "Inside function"

You can also chain decorators together by calling them one after the other.

my_function = decorator1(decorator2(my_function))

It's important to note that the decorator will not be applied when the function is defined, but when it is called.

Make your mark

Join the writer's program

Are you a developer and love writing and sharing your knowledge with the world? Join our guest writing program and get paid for writing amazing technical guides. We'll get them to the right readers that will appreciate them.

Write for us
Writer of the month
Marin Bezhanov
Marin is a software engineer and architect with a broad range of experience working...
Build on top of Better Stack

Write a script, app or project on top of Better Stack and share it with the world. Make a public repository and share it with us at our email.

or submit a pull request and help us build better products for everyone.

See the full list of amazing projects on github