How do I make function decorators and chain them together in Python?
In Python, a decorator is a design pattern to extend the functionality of a function without modifying its code. You can create a decorator function using the
@decorator_function syntax, or by calling the decorator function and passing the decorated function as an argument. For example:
def my_decorator(func): def wrapper(*args, **kwargs): print("Before function call") result = func(*args, **kwargs) print("After function call") return result return wrapper @my_decorator def my_function(): print("Inside function") my_function() # Output: "Before function call", "Inside function", "After function call"
You can chain decorators together by applying multiple decorators to a single function. The decorators will be applied in the order they are specified, with the innermost decorator being applied first. For example:
def decorator1(func): def wrapper(*args, **kwargs): print("Decorator 1") return func(*args, **kwargs) return wrapper def decorator2(func): def wrapper(*args, **kwargs): print("Decorator 2") return func(*args, **kwargs) return wrapper @decorator1 @decorator2 def my_function(): print("Inside function") my_function() # Output: "Decorator 2", "Decorator 1", "Inside function"
You can also chain decorators together by calling them one after the other.
my_function = decorator1(decorator2(my_function))
It's important to note that the decorator will not be applied when the function is defined, but when it is called.
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