How do ServerName and ServerAlias work in Apache?
ServerAlias directives are used in the server configuration to define how the server should respond to different hostnames or domain names. These directives are essential for virtual host configurations, allowing the server to handle multiple websites or domains on a single server.
ServerNamespecifies the main hostname or domain name associated with the server or a particular virtual host.
- It's used to identify the default host when the server receives requests that don't match any
ServerAliasin the virtual host configuration.
ServerAliasallows the server to respond to additional hostnames besides the one specified in
- It's used to specify alternative domain names, subdomains, or aliases for the same website hosted on the server.
ServerName example.com ServerAlias www.example.com blog.example.com
How They Work Together:
- When a request comes to the server, Apache checks the
ServerAliasdirectives in the virtual host configurations to determine which configuration to use.
- If the requested hostname matches the
ServerNameor any of the
ServerAliasvalues in a virtual host block, Apache will use that virtual host configuration to serve the request.
- If the request doesn't match any
ServerAliasin the virtual host configurations, Apache will use the default virtual host (the one defined first in the configuration) or the one associated with the main server.
- Primary Domain:
ServerNamedefines the main domain associated with a virtual host.
- Subdomains and Aliases:
ServerAliasis used to specify additional domain names or subdomains pointing to the same virtual host.
Wildcard Aliases: It's possible to use wildcards in
ServerAliasto match multiple subdomains, for instance:
ServerName example.com ServerAlias *.example.com
This configuration would match any subdomain of
Virtual Host Example:
<VirtualHost *:80> ServerName example.com ServerAlias www.example.com blog.example.com # ...other configuration directives for this host... </VirtualHost>
In a multi-domain hosting setup, using
ServerAlias directives correctly is crucial to ensure that Apache serves the correct content for different domains and subdomains hosted on the same server. These directives help Apache determine which virtual host configuration to use based on the incoming request's hostname.
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